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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




DECEMBER 15, 193© 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 



OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASH!NGTON,P.C. 





1 t.c,?-?7LL( 1 99623)9 




ISBN O-19-5IO709-8 
ISSN 1352-2744 
Vol. IX, No.3 




INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OP DECEMBER 15, 1936. 

Volume IV Number 9 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

A Tribute to Samuel M. Brosius John Collier 5 

The Drama of New World Civilization Duncan Strong 6 

Early Man In America Prank Roberts Jr. . .11 

A Glimpse Of The Prehistoric Southwest Emil Ha.ury 15 

Prehistoric Mound Builders Frank M. Setzler . 23 

Some Misconceptions About The American Indians M. W. Stirling ... 23 

Restoration of An Ancient Pueblo - Kinishba C. C. Cornwall ... 34 

Tonawanda Indians Get Community Center 38 

Revolving Credit Fund Operations H. M. Critchfield. 39 

Bridge Building On The Cheyenne River Reservation ... John J. Durkin ... 40 

Rock Asphalt At Uintah & Ouray E. Morgan Pryse . . 41 

Extension Of Trust Period On Indian Lands 42 

Great Lakes Fish Hatchery Raises Hope For Better 

Living Ben Gauthier 43 

An Historic Landmark At Shoshone 45 

Advice To An Iroquois Lawmaker 46 

Three Indian Christmases 47 

From I.E.C.W. Notes 49 



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VOLUME IV - • DECEMBER IS, 193S - ♦ NUMBER 9 

We came down from the Sierras to Pyramid Lake. For nearly 
a thousand miles thereafter, WATER would he the master - the King, 
Verily, water is destiny in this Nevada and interior California 
country. 

Pyramid Lake, owned "by the Paiute Indians, is a kind of 
City of Heaven, beautiful as Heaven. It is a doomed city "because 
the Sierra waters have "been appropriated for irrigation. The lake's 
level falls two feet each year. Salinity increases so that the fish- 
life has only a few years more to go. That means more than $10,000 
a year lost to the Pyramid Lake band. It means one of the splendors 
of the West, destroyed. 

Down southward, three hundred miles, three days later we 
saw dust darkening the sky to the mountain-tops. This dust was In- 
dependence Lake, blown by a slight wind. Twenty years ago steam- 
boats plied on this 40-mile-long lake. Now it is nothing but a glis- 
tering bowl of salts. A hundred miles north of it is dreamlike Liono 



Lake. Mono is a big lake too, but Mono too must die. To an island 
in Mono Lake come a million sea gulls every year. They fly right 
over the highest Sierras, to nest on this far inland island. For 
what tens or hundreds of thousands of years this migration has been 
repeated! After five or ten years more, the gulls will perish at 
Mono Lake. 

And down through Owens Valley, above whose wide sweep the 
snows of Mount Whitney are gleaming - tens of miles upon tens of 
miles of dead orchards, dead cottonwoods and poplars, dead homes of 
men. Water is fate, in all this country. 

Los Angeles reaches nearly four hundred miles northward 
for its water and it takes all the water. Thence northward, recla- 
mation projects take it all. 

I met with the Indians at Pyramid Lake, at Fallon, at 
Walker River. The Owens Valley Indian spokesmen came to the Walker 
River meeting. Water - water, was a part of every discussion. 

But the discussions had many other burdens, too. I had 
not visited the Nevada Indians since twelve years ago. Two years 
under Superintendent Bowler and under the I. R. A. have brought to 
Nevada's Indians a real renaissance. One of the most downcast and 
directionless of Indian areas has become one of the most energetic 
areas - and the Indians are "going somewhere", and they know where 
they are going. Under "the shadow of the sword" - a dearth of water 
and loss of water - these Paiutes, Washoes and Shoshones are re- 
establishing their life. 



They are getting new lands. In Owens Valley, through land 
exchanges, the 800 Indians will all he placed on irrigated hold- 
ings. At McDerraitt, Pyramid Lake and Walker River the hands are 
successfully launched in the cattle "business. Cooperative trading 
enterprise at McDermitt has added nearly 30 per cent to the real 
income. Admirably worked-out credit plans are going forward at 
Pyramid Lake and at McDermitt. The Walker River and Fallon Indians 
have come to grips with their problem of heirship lands - which 
under the I. R. A. (at Walker River), or temporarily not under it 
(at Fallon), is the most baffling of all Indian economic problems. 

Arts and crafts revival, and folklore revival, are sound- 
ly under way, centering in the Carson School and in its arts-crafts 
cooperative, now an incorporated body under the Nevada laws. 

Miss Bowler and her staff have achieved decentralization 
and real staff action in this immense jurisdiction. (The jurisdic- 
tion is nearly 600 miles from end to end.) 

But what is the master-impression from these exciting 
days? It is the impression of a stupendous land (mountains and 
valleys, distances and skies are all stupendous), an exquisite land, 
whose spiritual quality is Indian. It is the Indians who possess 
this land. There is not a mountain, not a cave, not a dim-green 
or russet volcanic mound, which is not named with a name by Indians 
not dead or gone, and not forgetful. Still, and hardly less than 
of old, the magic might, an invisible lightning, flashes between 



these Indians and their desert and its precious animals and plants. 
Still they sing their obscure challenging song of how they (a peo- 
ple and individuals) are like to, are one with, the desert bush 
whose roots are far-clasping, deep-hidden, drought-defying, im- 
mortal. These Indians need not die; they want not to die; they 
are consciously striving, now, for the means to live on. They will 
live on - and not merely as a blood, but as a culture and a vision. 

And now, once more - water, the King. We are flying 
above Boulder Dam. Can these be the yellow waters that drift from 
the Navajo range into the Colorado? Blue as the lakes of the 
Italian Alps, today, within its thousand delicate promontories of 
colored rock, tne deep lake reaches far away to the north. And 
eastward there is a haze growing rosy over the Navajos' Painted 
Desert. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



COVER PICTURE 

The cover picture on this issue of INDIANS AT WORK was taken on 
Baptiste Creek, Flathead National Forest in Montana. The photograph is by 
the U. S. Forest Service. 



A TRIBUTE TO SAMUEL M. BROSIUS 



Fifteen years ago, at San Juan Pueolo in New Mexico, 
there was handed me an unsigned document treating of thf> Pueblo 
lands. The struggle over the Albert B. Fall -- Bursura bill was just 
about to commence. This unsigned document stated the whole fac- 
tual and legal case for the Indians; and its language was so simple, 
its procession of argument so logical, that any Indian could under- 
stand it. 

Afterward I learned that Samuel M. Brosius had surrolied 
this basic statement - a statement which court rulings and legisla- 
tive action of future years were to confirm. 

Mr. Brosius even then was an elderly man. Thirty years 
of service to Indian rights lay behind him. But fifteen years of 
service were still in front of him. 

It was only three months ago that I last saw Mr. Brosius. 
He came to tell me of the most recent developments of the ffalapai 
land case. This very complicated and important issue had been 
forced by Mr. Brosius, at personal sacrifice, five years ago. As 
in the Pueblo case, Mr. Brosius had been firmly based in the facts 
and in the law. 

Mr. Brosius served for a lifetime as counsel for the 
Indian Rights Association. He built himself into the history of 
Indian life. He was a good man, a brave man and always he kept a 
true humility. May such as he be provided for the future: for 
the cause of Indian rights will still be a battling cause, through 
many years to come. 



John Collier 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 



THE DRAMA. OF HEW WORLD CIVILIZATION 
By Duncan Strong, Anthropologist - Bureau of American Ethnology 




Dated Monument Of Stela At 
The Maya City Of Quirigua 



Viewed as a stage, the North 
and South American continents, in rela- 
tion to the land masses around the north 
pole, appear as a great extension of the 
Asiatic continent. Anywhere from ten to 
forty thousand years ago, when the great 
ice sheets were receding into the north, 
ancient peoples from Asia, pushed across 
the narrow straits between the Asiatic 
and North American continents and entered 
into a vast New World unoccupied by any 
other humans. These first comers were 
extremely primitive hunters and fishermen 
who, following food supplies consisting 
of animal herds, fish and wild plants, 
in the course of endless centuries even- 
tually pushed their way through Central 
America and into the furthest reaches of 
South America. 

The occupation of the New World 
undoubtedly began with a few migrant hunt- 
ers and continued for endless centuries. 
Group after group entered from the north. 
In the new and congenial environment they 
increased until practically every por- 
tion of the New World was occupied by 
groups of these originally Mongoloid peo- 
ple who, since the time of Columbus* mis- 
taken identification, have been known as 
Indians. 



Only in very recent years have 
the traces of these first great migrations been found in our western plains 
and along the eastern borders of the Rocky Mountains. Here archaeologists 
have found, often in association with animal forms that today are extinct, 
ancient stone implements which were used by that early group of New World 
hunters. These remains are today known as the Eolsom culture which is dis- 
cussed elsewhere in this issue. Erom the time of the Folsom hunters, at least 
ten thousand years ago, to that of the "discovery" of America by Columbus, the 
New World was the scene of the unfolding of a great drama of civilization en- 
tirely unique from any of the higher civilizations of Asia and Europe. 



Not only did these early hunters find an abundant food supply in the 
great herds of caribou, bison and other animals, but they found an infinite 
variety of plant forms utterly unknown in the old world. How long the ancestral 
Indians remained solely as hunters and gatherers is not known but it certainly 
comprised many millennia. Even today in the extreme north and in the extreme 
south there are still Indians who have never passed beyond this primitive eco- 
nomic stage. In the regions of Middle America, however, as population in- 
creased new plants were utilized and, in the course of time, many of these came 
to be artificially cared for. A new and vastly important economic step lead- 
ing to agriculture has been made. It was the independent development of agri- 
culture, based on unique and autochthonous plants, which started the American 
Indian on the highroad of cultural progress culminating in the great civiliza- 
tion of the Mayas and the Andean empire of the Incas. 



The exact point of origin of native American agriculture is unknown 
but there is a strong probability that it may have begun in several places at 
once. The most important native American agricultural product was maize, com- 
monly called corn, which seems to have originated in the highlands of Guatemala 
or Mexico. In the south many varieties of potatoes were developed in the high- 
lands of Peru and Colombia. In the great jungles of the Amazon, manioc, from 
which cassava is made, became the staple food of the Indians. As the cultiva- 
tion of native plants improved and as the idea of agriculture, along with its 
products, spread from tribe to tribe 
true civilization began in the New 
World. It is this long and fascinating 
story of the rise of the ancient em- 
pires of America that the archaeologists 
are now patiently unearthing in the 
jungles and mountains of the American 
tropics. 

In Central America the great- 
est civilization was attained by the 
Maya Indians whose numerous descend- 
ants still dwell on the Peninsula of 
Yucatan and in the highlands of Guate- 
mala. From a simpler cultural level 
based on agriculture, Mayan civiliza- 
tion seems to have flowered very rapid- 
ly. They built huge cities of stone 
ornamented by beuatiful and intricate 
carving, created exquisite works of 
art in jade and pottery, and invented 
a calendric system superior in accuracy 
to that we use today. Not only did the 
Maya invent a calendar but they re- 
corded important dates in stone carvings 

and these monuments today serve as one 

The Temple Of The Sun At 

The Maya City of Palenque 




of the moat important means of unravelling the complex story of New World pre- 
history. About 800 A. D. , the centers of Mayan civilization shifted from south 
em Guatemala into northern Yucatan and great cities, such as Chichen Itza, 
were built. The reasons for this shift are not positively known, but it is 
believed that the peculiar agricultural system of the Maya, based on clearing 
the jungle by fire before planting, had destroyed the forests of their origi- 
nal home land and introduced grass lands into the area. Such savannas were 
not productive under the agricultural methods then in use, and the dense pop- 
ulation was forced to move on in search of new areas for cultivation. 

The Mayas in the New World have justly been compared with the Greeks 
of the Old World since they seem to have originated much of the culture which 
was taken over by later peoples of Mexico and farther to the north. Never 
strongly united, the great Maya cities of the north fell into civil war and 
their power was broken by the advent of militaristic Toltec and Aztec warriors 
from the Valley of Mexico. The Toltec and Aztec civilizations in the Valley 
of Mexico were raised upon the substratum of Mayan accomplishment. It was the 
great militaristic empire of the Aztec which Cortez encountered in his des- 
perate and dramatic march from the sea to Tenochtitlan, today the capital of 
Mexico. The Aztec, less advanced in the arts and sciences than the Maya, had 
developed the science of domination and their great empire included many 
tribes. It is highly probable that Cortez and his little band of desperate 
men would never have been able to conquer these great warriors and empire 
builders save for the circumstance that the Valley of Mexico was already rent 
by civil war. 

Contemporaneous with the Aztecs to the north were the Incas of Peru. 
The Incas, originally a small highland tribe dominated by an able aristocratic 
caste, in the course of a few centuries conquered all the western portion of 
South America from Chile to Colombia. Like that of the Aztecs, Inca civiliza- 
tion was based on the cultural and artistic achievements of several older civ- 
ilizations centering around Lake Titacaca and the coast of Peru. One by one 
the remnants of these ancient empires fell before the organized Inca invaders 
and were incorporated into that great system of autocratic socialism which 
characterized the Inca rule. Tolerant of local religions, the Inca insisted 
only upon the worship of the sun and the use of the Quechua language. When a 
province was conquered it was organized into districts under local headmen. 
Sons of the local chieftains were taken to Cuzco to be initiated into the arts 
and beliefs of the Incas. Should the conquered population prove rebellious 
they might be removed into other parts of the empire where, among strangers, 
they could do no harm. Land was allotted on the basis of families, trades 
where hereditary and all products, other than those of immediate subsistence, 
were regarded as the property of the state. Elaborate systems to prevent soil 
erosion and to irrigate dry areas were maintained. Natural resources such as 
wild, wool producing llamas were protected. Vast storehouses were built in 
each district. Stone paved roads and bridges were constructed and a govern- 
ment messenger service installed. Thus, messages and produce could be carried 
from one end of the vast empire to the other in a few days.. 




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Pre-Inca Temple At Pachacamac, Peru 



All power eventually centered in The Inca, head of the original auto- 
cratic clan, who was regarded as the Son of the Sun. The divinity of The Inca. 
was so highly regarded that The Inca married his sister in order that his heir 
might have no alien "blood. A great convent or school existed for the daugh- 
ters of the noMlity where in seclusion they were taught the arts of weaving, 
and eventually might "be chosen as concubines for The Inca or wives for the 
higher nobility. Likewise, a stern school of politics and warfare was main- 
tained for the sons of the nobility. These were required to pass tests of 
hardihood and skill "before they were admitted to the status of manhood. Here 
again, the Spaniards were fortunate in the time of their conquest. When 
Pizarro invaded the Inca empire he likewise found it in the throes of civil 
war. Unlike the somewhat looser Aztec empire, that of the Incas was so cen- 
tralized that when, "by a combination of boldness and political trickery, 
Pizarro seized and executed The Inca, the great decapitated system fell apart. 



Such in brief are a few of the later and more dramatic episodes in 
the New World drama. Part of the long struggle of earliest American hunters 
to attain, civilization is told in a later article. This conquest of nature 
continued for thousands of years as indicated by numerous archaeological rem- 
nants of the simpler civilizations in both North and South America. Two such 
fascinating areas, that of the Southwestern United States and of the Mound 
Building peoples of the Mississippi Valley, will be subsequently discussed by 



authorities in those fields. Like the great empires of the Andes and of Cen- 
tral America, these civilizations of the northern border also arose upon a com- 
mon agricultural base extending from Argentina to the St. Lawrence River. 
High as were the attainments of certain native populations in what is now the 
United States, it must he remembered that they were overshadowed by the great 
city, states and empires of Mexico, Central America and western South America. 
It was in these latter regions that New World agriculture was first developed 
and it was there that native American civilization reached its zenith. 

When European conquerors appeared upon the scene they were superior 
to the natives of the New World in methods of destruction and in some places 
they destroyed more than they have ever replaced. If the Europeans had steel 
and gunpowder, the natives of America had developed systems of agriculture su- 
perior to those then in use in Europe and their arts and philosophical systems 
while unique were infinitely complex and thoroughly adapted to the land of 
their development. The European conqueror brought to the American Indian, war, 
slavery, disease, and often, extermination. The American Indian gave to Europe 
many of its most important present-day food crops and medicines. Northern 
Europe without corn and potatoes, Africa without cassava, man the world over 
without rubber and tobacco, the tropics without quinine, would today be un- 
thinkable. Yet each of these essential products was developed by the American 
Indian over millennia of experimentation and toil. 

Thus, if there be any epilogue to this drama, it might be the rec- 
ommendation that we who brought "civilization" to the American continent 
think gratefully of the many contributions which the truly native Americans 
have made to our own present-day life. 




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Inca Walls Still In Use, Cuzco, Peru 



10 



EARLY MAS IN AMER ICA 
By Frank H. H. Roberts Jr., Archaeologist, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution 



Numerous finds indicating a greater antiquity for the American In- 
dian than had previously "been granted have focused attention on the subject 
of early man in the New World. As a result there has been a rapidly growing 
interest in the question, how long has the Indian been in America? Archaeol- 
ogists have been busy searching for clues and while they have several signif- 
icant discoveries to their credit the problem has not yet been solved. Pres- 
ent evidences only furnishes a hint of the proper answer. In a number of 
places stone tools were found with the bones of extinct animals under condi- 
tions suggesting that the men who ma.de the implements hunted and killed the 




Digging At The Lindenmeier Site For Folsom Material 

creatures. Because the animals belong to species believed to have become ex- 
tinct at the end of the Ice Age, or shortly after the melting glaciers began 
their northward retreat, the associations are thought to show that men were 
present at the beginning of the present geologic period, if not actually at 
the end of the preceding one. This evidence is augmented by finds in other 
places where man-made objects were recovered from deposits that geologists 
identify as representative of the same general era. Sites containing such ma- 
terials are located in Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California. 



11 



Probably the best known examples are Gypsum Cave, Nevada, and the 
various locations designated by the name Folsom. At Gypsum Cave traces of an 
early group were found with remains of the giant ground sloth, the llama-like 
American camel, and possibly the small native horses. Little is known of the 
cultural pattern beyond the fact that the people were skilled chippers of stone 
implements, were workers in wood and feathers, used sinew thread to sew skin 
garments, and used several different colors to paint designs on their products. 
For weapons they used a short spear and spear thrower, they did not know the 
bow and arrow. Although they occasionally camped there over night they did not 
use the cave as a permanent habitation. They visited it' mainly for hunting 
purposes. Nothing is known of the physical characteristics of the people as 
none of their skeletal remains have been found. The main significance of the 
evidence here is that it shows the ancestors of some as yet unidentified 
southwestern Indian group hunted animals that have long since been extinct. 

The Folsom complex is characterized by an association of stone im- 
plements with bison, mammoth and musk-ox bones. The bison was similar to but 
much larger than the modern buffalo. The mammoth was the large hairy elephant 




Split Bison Bones And Stone Implements Before Eemoval At Lindenmeier Site 

which was one of the typical animals of the glacial period, yet it may have 
survived for a time after the present period began. The musk-ox, also a cold 
climate creature, still lives in arctic America, although many centuries have 
no doubt elapsed since it roamed across southern New Mexico and was hunted by 
the people living there. All that is known of the Folsom group is that it 
had a great variety of stone tools, including a peculiarly fluted projectile 
point which is called the Folsom point. No human remains have been found and 
there is no knowledge of what the Folsom men were like. There is no evidence 
for what type of shelter they may have used. On the other hand it is obvious 



12 



that they were typical hunters depending entirely upon big game for their main- 
tainence. They no doubt supplemented their preponderant meat diet with wild 
seeds and "greens" hut they did not cultivate their own vegetal food. That 
was a development attained by much later peoples. The Folsora groups probably 
did not settle long in one place but traveled wherever the animals moved. The 
most important sites for the remains of this group are near Folsora, New Mexico, 
the place where the original finds were made and from which the name was taken; 
at the old lakes beds between Clovis and Portales, New Mexico; and at the 
Lindenmeier ranch north of Ft. Collins, Colorado. Subsequent developments for 
this group have not been traced, but it probably evolved into some of the later 
Plains peoples. 

In the region around Abilene, Texas, remains representing an early 
hunting pattern approximately on a par with the Folsom have been found. Some 
consider these older than Folsom while others are not in agreement on the es- 
timated antiquity. Evidence for this group consists of stone hearths with 
charcoal and fragmentary animal bones buried deeply, sometimes as much as 25 
feet, beneath sand, clay and gravel, and stone implements in the gravel beds. 




Folsom Points, Note Groove Along The Face 

There are no extinct animal bones, but the deposits in which the specimens 
are found are called glacial by some geologists. 

Both human remains and man-made objects have been found in Minnesota 
in deposits identified as glacial. Here again the evidence is for a simple 
hunting culture and the people are considered representative of an early type 
of Indian. Some of the specialists who have visited the sites believe them to 
be quite old, others think they represent considerable antiquity although not 
going back as far as the time of the glaciers. 



13 



General concensus is that North America was peopled from northeastern 
Asia and that the spread was along several routes down across the continent. 
Since the evidence for the early migrants shows that the first traces thus far 
found are subsequent to the climax of the last glaciation there is a starting 
point to help determine the time of the arrival of the first Indians. Because 
some of the finds indicate that tliey were here at about the close of the gla- 
cial period it seems likely that they must have traveled down along 1;he east- 
ern slopes of the Rocky Mountains through an open corridor in the great ice 
sheet, a corridor which is believed to have formed there about 15,000 years 
ago. Hence the remains must be later. Geologists have estimated that the 
Folsom deposits near Clovis are approximately 12,000 years old and that Gypsum 
Cave is subsequent to them. On this basis it can be said that the Indians have 
been in America from 12,000 to 13,000 years. The evidence, however, is so 
meager that this must be considered only as an approximation and when much more 
information is available the actual time may prove to be somewhat shorter. 




Earliest Prehistoric Pottery 
Basket Maker Period 



14 



A GLIMPSE OF THE PREHISTORIC SOUTHVffiST 
By Emil W. Haury - Assistant Director Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona. 

The southwestern portion of the United States can lay claim to many 
things of scientific interest. This may he in its mountains and canyons, in 
the varying vegetation of the hot semi-desert regions or in the cool forested 
areas and in the animal life of these diverse topographic sections. Of great- 
est interest to the anthropologist, the student of man, are the people who 
live here now, whose characteristics are well known; those people who were 
found here by the Conquistadores and who are known from their remains and 
brief historic accounts; and those people whose customs and industries are 
known least of all because of their great age and the lack of written accounts 
concerning them. Something of the life of these earliest peoples can be re- 
constructed by the archaeologist from the very meager amount of material which 
time has not destroyed. 

For many years expeditions from our universities and scientifically 
minded institutions have been attacking this problem. They have been study- 
ing the ruins of the large communal houses of the prehistoric Pueblo Indian, 
the houses and burial remains in caves, the villages consisting of houses dug 
into the ground and places where man camped many thousands of years ago but 
left very little in the way of his handiwork behind him. By carefully piec- 
ing together many bits of evidence, insignificant in themselves, gathered by 
these various research projects, the archaeologists have given us a very in- 
teresting but incomplete picture of the life of the true American in the South- 
west before Europeans set foot on the shores of the New World. Let us turn 
briefly to see what we know of some of the prehistoric people here, to mention 
hastily some of their accomplishments and to arrive at some idea of their age. 

Evidence is accumulating swiftly to show that man lived many thou- 
sand years ago in Texas, and the southern parts of New Mexico, Arizona and 
California. In those remote times man found the region considerably different 
than today because of a difference in climate - a period of more moisture than 
we are accustomed to today - occasioned by the recession of the last ice sheet 
of the Glacial Age, The "fingerprints" of man - his stone tools - are being 
found in these states under deep deposits of silt in the broad arid valleys 
and in the beach materials of extinct or nearly extinct lakes. Some of these 
lakes have been reduced to playas, or alkali flats, which show a thin sheet 
of water only after rains. One of these lakes in southeastern Arizona, now 
known as the tfillcox Playa, was approximately forty feet deep as indicated by 
its old shore line. Along this shore ancient man lived, leaving the tools be- 
hind him that are being found today. 

These implements, whether from the lake shores or from the compacted 
silt deposits which are now being laid bare by erosion, are mainly in the na- 

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A Site In Southeastern Arizona flhere 
Tools Of Ancient Man Have Been Pound 

(The white deposit consists mainly 
of clay, laid down in a pond. At 
the feet of the man and under the 
clays is a "bed of sand and fine grav- 
el containing the man-made tools, in- 
dicating that man lived here prior to 
the formation of the pond which may 
be not less than ten thousand years 
ago.) 



ture of grinding tools, supplemented 
"by a small number of chipped implements, 
as knives and scrapers. The primary use 
of these tools was, of course, the pro- 
curing and the preparation of food. From 
the amount of grinding stones, it is in- 
ferred that some food product, possibly 
the root of tule, was pulverized. It 
is not necessary to believe that these 
implements indicate a knowledge of agri- 
culture by these people, the high antiq- 
uity of the remains would argue against 
such knowledge. They apparently relied 
on nature to supply their food, and for 
this reason they have been placed in a 
food gathering stage of culture. Pot- 
tery was unknown to these people. As 
skeletal remains have not been found, 
nothing can be said of their appearance. 

The age of these people is a ge- 
ological problem. The geologist tells 
us that for many thousand years there 
has not been a sufficient amount of 
rainfall to have brought the extinct 
lakes to their former high levels in- 
dicated by the shore lines. The lake 
that once covered the Willcox Playa is 
said to have been full at about the end 
and for sometime after the Glacial Peri- 
od, when glaciers covered much of Canada 
and many of the northern United States. 
Exactly how many thousands of years ago 
this was is not known, but a conserva- 
tive age of ten thousand years has been 
estimated for these tools, and it is not 
improbable that they are much older, ol- 
der in fact than Folsom Man described 
in the article on page 11 . 



How long these ancient food gatherers lived where their remains are 
found and what changes their culture underwent, we cannot yet say. 



The "Hohokam" Or Ancient Ones 

Our next real evidence of early people is also found in southern New 
Mexico and Arizona, but a vast change has taken place in their material pos- 
sessions over those of the earlier people. These later people had dwellings 
known to the archaeologist as pit houses - houses dug partially into the ground; 



16 



they made vessels of clay for cooking their foods and for storing foodstuffs 
and water; they had acquired corn from a source not identified as yet and knew 
well its cultivation. Although these characteristics were shared by the people 
in the two states mentioned, they nevertheless differed in many other details 
and for that reason they, have not been considered as belonging to the same 
stock. As we know much more about the group that lived in the Gila and- Salt 
River valleys of southern Arizona than the New Mexican group, let us study them 
a little further. 

These people are known to the archaeologist as the "Hohokam", a word 
borrowed from the Pima Indians meaning the Ancient Ones. Their oldest remains 
probably go back to a few centuries before the time of Christ. As time elapsed, 
they gradually became more expert at making pottery and they developed their 
artistic ability of painting designs on their pieces; they acquired or developed 
the carving of stone and shell, as well as many other things, so that their 
culture slowly became richer. 

Approximately one thousand years ago the Hohokam reached a peak iD 
this cultural development. Undoubtedly the height which they attained in this 
direction was made possible by the fact that they were excellent and provident 
farmers. Yet they lived in an environment that to. maJiy people seems harsh and 
inhospitable, especially in the summer. The Hohokam learned at an early date 
that if they were to mature their crops successfully means for artificial ir- 
rigation must be developed. As a consequence, canals were dug which led the 
water from the Gila and Salt Rivers to the fields of corn, beans, squash and 
cotton. We know that as early as about 800 A. D. canal 'irrigation was in full 
progress among the Hohokam. These canals were dug by hand, in some case.s as 
much as sixty feet wide and six to eight feet deep. When canal irrigation was 
at its height, roughly between 1200 and 1400, several hundred miles of canals 
were in use. The development of these systems was one of the greatest accom- 
plishments ever made by North American Indians. Only those who excavate modern 
canals with powered machinery can fully appreciate the enormous expenditure of 
human energy and the economic investment which the Hohokam had in their canal 
systems. But without them, life in large villages .would have been impossible. 

For more than a thousand years, the Hohokam habitually cremated their 
dead, while practically all other Southwestern people buried their dead. 

Some time after 500 A. D., if we interpret the evidence correctly, 
the Hohokam began playing a peculiar kind of ball game in a court with high 
earthen sides. One of these courts, which was partially excavated at Snake- 
town on the Gila River Indian Reservation west of Sacaton, measured somewhat 
under two hundred feet in length and ninety feet in width. At the center a 
stone had been buried below the floor and "goal" stones were set into the 
floor near each end of the court. This court, and others known to exist in 
southern Arizona, is similar in some respects to the stone-walled ball courts 
of the Maya Indians of ancient days in Yucatan and Guatemala, 1500 miles to 
the south. In the game as the Maya played it, stone rings were set into the 
walls vertically, well above the floor and central in relation to the length 



17 




A Hohokam House Of A Thousand Years Ago 
(This house was excavated by Gila Pueblo At Snaketown west of Sacaton, 
Arizona, two years ago. It was apparently used for storage, as many broken jars 
were found on the floor, some of which may still be seen. Entrance to the struc- 
ture was gained through the oval passage in the foreground.) 

of the court. The ball, made of rubber and about the size of a baseball, was 
bounced off the hips of the players, grouped in two teams, in an effort to 
send it through the stone ring. Since a rubber ball has been found in a Hoh- 
okam ruin of southern Arizona, dating about a thousand years ago, it is alto- 
gether probable that they, too, used balls of this material in the game. It 
is not necessary to assume, however, that rubber was acquired by the Hohokam 
from the far south, as it might have been obtained from the Guayule plant, a 
rubber bearing plant native to the Chihuahua Desert. 

Another interesting and unparalleled accomplishment of the Hohokam 
was the etching of shell. To achieve this, a sea shell was partially covered 
with a waxy or pitchy substance in the form of a design. The shell was then 
immersed in an acid, probably the fermented juice of the giant cactus fruit, 
which slowly ate away the unprotected parts of the shell. Although the Hohokam 
used this' method at about 1000 A. D. , the etching of metal as a method of mak- 
ing pictures involving the same principles was not developed in Europe until 
about 1500. 



18 



The Hohokam seem to have lived unmolested until about 1300, when an 
immigrant group of Pueblo people from the northeast invaded their land. There 
is every indication that this invasion was a peaceful one and that the two 
peoples lived amicably in villages until about 1400 or 1450, when the Pueblos 
withdrew. During their occupation of the Gila and Salt River valleys, such 
large buildings as Casa Grande, Casa Blanca and Los Muertos were constructed. 
The evidence of the immigrants is seen in their pottery, in the character of 
their houses and in the fact that they buried their dead, all elements in 
which they differed from the Hohokam. 

There are some reasons to believe that the present Pima Indians, 
living today in the area formerly occupied by the Hohokam, are their descend- 
ants. If the archaeologist can eventually prove this satisfactorily, it can 
be said that the Pimas have been living where they now are for at least two 
thousand years. 

T he Basket Maker s 

But what was going on in northern Arizona during all this time? In 
the San Juan area, at about the time of Christ, there were living a group of 
people known to the archaeologists as the Basket Makers. As the name implies, 
they made baskets of excellent quality. They also made many other items use- 
ful in their daily life, as sandals, twined bags and robes of fur wrapped cord. 
They cultivated corn and supplemented this vegetable diet with such game as 
they were successful in killing. Their hunting was done with a peculiar weap- 
on known a.s an atl-atl, or spear thrower, a device designed to give the arm 
more leverage in hurling a spear. These people did not make pottery. Their 
dead were buried in a folded position, frequently in caves with their baskets, 
textiles and wooden objects. Fortunately the dry conditions of many of the 
caves have carefully preserved these things for us. In appearance the Basket 
Makers were quite tall - somewhat taller than the present day Pueblo Indian 
and their faces and heads were long and narrow. 

Before 500 A. D. , the Basket Makers began to make pottery of a primi- 
tive kind and atl-atl was supplanted by the bow and arrow. About 700 a new 
force arrived in the area, attributed to the appearance of a new group of 
people. They were somewhat smaller than the Basket Makers; their heads were 
round instead of oval and frequently deformed from contact with a hard cradle 
board on which the babies were carried. The resulting mixture of Basket Makers 
and the newcomers gave us what we know as the prehistoric Pueblo culture, the 
descendants of which are living today in the modern pueblos of Arizona and New 
Mexico . 

From 700 A. D. on, this mixed group advanced rapidly in its material 
culture. The deep pit houses, still in vogue at 700, were transformed within 
a few hundred years to the large many-storied pueblos, as exemplified by Pueblo 
Bonito. The kiva, a subterranean clan room inspired by the old form of pit 
house, assumed prominence and has survived to the present day. Cotton was 

19 



introduced, making possible the weaving of fine textiles and excellent pottery 
of many kinds was produced and as the Pueblo Indians of today, they were es- 
sentially farmers. After 1000 A. D. these people built some of our largest 
cliff dwellings, as those in Mesa Verde, Betatakin and Keet Seel. These were 
all abandoned just before 1300 for reasons which will be explained presently .. 




A Cliff Dwelling Of The Prehistoric Pueblo Culture 

(This picture was taken in the Canyon Creek Euin, located on the 
Port Apache Reservation. It shows but a few of the 60 rooms that once formed 
this communal house. The three large beams protruding from the top of the 
wall on the left support the roof of a second story room. They were cut in 
the year 1343 A. D. The true ring dates for the entire village ranged between 
1326 and 1348.) 



20 



Tree Ring Counts Form Basis Of Chronology Estimates 

Perhaps the reader will have wondered long "before this point how 
the archaeologist can speak in terms of dates in our Christian calendar as 
early as 500 when we have no written records prior to the arrival of the 
Spaniards in the 16th century. The ability to do this was made possible through 
the studies of tree growth carried on by Dr. A. E. Douglass of the Steward Ob- 
servatory, Tucson, Arizona. Dr. Douglass found that the amount of growth of 
certain trees in any one year depends upon the amount of moisture the tree has 
received during the winter preceding the summer growing season. Thus, in a 
dry year, the growth, shown in the form of a thin layer of cells under the 
bark and known as a ring, will be small; in a wet year this ring will be large. 
Trees growing under the same general environment will be affected in the same 
way, so that all trees growing simultaneously will register the large and small 
rings in the same order. By comparing the tree ring records of growing trees, 
whose rings can be dated in our calendar, with the ring records of trees cut 
a century or two ago, and by further comparing these with trees cut a number 
of centuries ago, it became possible to build a continuous series of records. 
This chronology now extends to within a few years of the time of Christ as 
each ring has an annual value. 

Because wood was extensively used by southwestern people in house 
building, the archaeologist can take the specimens, whether they are well- 
preserved pieces from caves or the charcoal from burned houses and fit them 
into the existing tree ring calendar. By this means it has become possible 
to say that Pueblo Bonito was occupied in the 10th to 12th centuries and that 
such ruins as Cliff Palace and Betatakin were occupied almost to 1300 A. D. 

Drought Sequences Influence Population Movements 

The tree ring record has also given us some rather definite notions 
as to when droughts occurred in the Southwest. This knowledge is becoming in- 
creasingly useful in interpreting the movements of people. We know, for ex- 
ample, that in the last quarter of the 13th century, the Southwest experienced 
a severe and extended dry period. From the tree ring dates we have learned 
that it was during this time that all of the great cliff dwellings of the San 
Juan area were abandoned. At the same time we are conscious that there was a 
southward expansion of the Pueblo people that took them into the Gila Valley 
where they joined the Hohokam. That the drought and these shifts in popula- 
tion should have taken place simultaneously cannot be considered a mere coin- 
cidence. It is probable that this same period saw the arrival of the vanguards 
of the Athapascan Indians - the Navajo and Apache of today - and that their 
appearance is also to be attributed directly or indirectly to the drought. 
They must have been largely instrumental in driving some of the Pueblo groups 
into southern Arizona. Forces of this kind the archaeologist is only now be- 
ginning to understand, thanks to the great contribution of Dr. Douglass 1 tree 
ring studies. 



21 



Let Us Cherish Our Pre-Historic Remains 

To build up a history of the Indians of the Southwest, or any region, 
in pre-Spanish times, it is absolutely necessary that the archaeologist has the 
opportunity to examine the remains exactly as they were left centuries ago. For 
that reason it is the wish of the writer that all those who may read this 
article should wield their influence in preventing the exploitation of our ntins. 
Much information is "being irretrievably lost "by the digging of persons whose 
interests are commercial or who desire to satisfy a personal whim for amassing 
a collection of ancient material without having any real interest as to its 
significance. It should be borne in mind that our archaeological resources 
are not limitless and that those which are left should be preserved and studied 
with the greatest care. 




Prehistoric Pottery Prom Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico. 



22 



PREHISTORIC MOUND BUILDERS 

By Prank M. Setzler, 

U. S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution 

Within the past ten years important contributions have been made to 
the prehistory of the eastern United States. Additional and unsuspected data 
have been gathered concerning the tribes that inhabited Florida when Ponce de 
Leon discovered the peninsula in 1513. The mystery and misinformation with 
which the Mound Builders have long been concealed have been measurably lessened. 

Beginning with the Spanish and French penetration in the Southeast, 
with the establishment of English and Dutch settlements along the Atlantic Sea- 
board, European civilization soon displaced the native Indian cultures. Not 
until the beginning of the 19th century did scholars suddenly realize that many 
of our aborigines were rapidly losing their tribal characteristics and that we 
should have no trustworthy record of their individual histories, their lan- 
guages, mythology ^and tribal customs unless a determined effort was speedily 
made to recover and preserve such knowledge. It has been estimated that no 
fewer than 600 distinct and mutually unintelligible Indian languages were 
spoken within the present United States at the time Captain John Smith was 
trying to save the first English settlement in the New World, that of James- 
town, Virginia, in 1607. 

Through archaeology we seek to reconstruct living history; to lift 
the veil of speculation from those diverse peoples who, directly or indirectly, 
have contributed to our own civilization. Through archaeology we endeavor to 
retrieve the history of peoples who left no written record of their own a- 
chievements. 

The archaeological approach, of course, must lend itself to the par- 
ticular condition encountered. As Indian tribes differed in language so did 
they differ in their material culture. When the Pilgrim Fathers landed on 
Plymouth Rock seme of the Indians were still living in the Stone Age; some were 
farmers, dwelling in permanent villages whose very existence depended upon a 
highly perfected form of communal agriculture; some were hunters who followed 
the buffalo herds of the Great Plains. It is the story of these diverse Indian 
peoples, from their arrival in the New World down to the coming of the Euro- 
pean colonists, that the archaeologist tries to recover and record. Almost 
from its very beginning in 1846 the Smithsonian Institution has been concerned 
with this problem of aboriginal discovery and settlement the dispersal and 
development into numerous Indian tribes, the creation and cultivation of dis- 
tinctive plants, which form but a part of. the prehistory of the United States. 

Let us review briefly the results of certain archaeological projects 
recently concluded by the Smithsonian Institution. As an aid to the Govern- 



23 



merit's Civil Works Administration program to relieve the -unemployment situa- 
tion during the winter of 1933-34 the Smithsonian was invited to furnish 
trained archaeologists to supervise archaeological excavations in Florida, 
Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and California. This program was one of 
the most extensive ever attempted at one time in the United States. 





Mound On Wolf Plains In Athens County, Ohio 

In Florida three important sites were excavated. Near Bradenton, on 
the west coast, a mound revealed the entire floor plan of a temple giving the 
first outlines of such a Florida structure. It may have "been at such a "build- 
ing that Juan Ortiz was used as a watchman during his captivity among the Cal- 
usa Indians. Ortiz was the Spaniard discovered by De Soto when he landed at 
Tampa Bay, May 30, 1539. This is the first mound discovered in Florida which 
contained systematic cremations. In the southeast corner of the temple a 
double row of posts reenforced the area, where the cremations of the "bodies 
took place. 

Mounds near Cocoa-Rockledge, on the east coast of Florida, revealed 
"bodies of the Surruque Indians, who occupied this part of Florida when it was 
discovered by the Spaniards. Menendez, the founder of St. Augustine, held a 
council in 1566 at or near Cape Canaveral which was attended "by no less than 
1500 of these Indians. The only knowledge of the Surruque left us "by the early 
explorers of Florida is a brief catalog of repeated disasters, ending with their 
final extermination slightly more than 100 years after their first contact with 



24 



Europeans. It was the purpose of the 1934 excavations to supplement these 
scanty historical records. 

A third site, near Belle Glade, Florida, revealed exceptional data 
requiring further study "before any conclusion can he reached regarding the 
possible relationship of the historic Indians with the ancient remains. 

One of the most important sites examined in the Southeast was near 
the city of Macon, Georgia. Extensive excavations were made in a group of 
mounds overlooking the Ocmulgee River as well as in others within the city 
limits of Macon. One of the most interesting discoveries disclosed was the 
foundation of a circular building. This agrees in most particulars with 
early descriptions of the covered ceremonial house or "hot house" of the 
Creeks - such as served the Indians as a combination temple, state bouse and 
men's club house. By careful work with trowels and whiskbrooms the floor of 
this structure was entirely exposed. It consisted of a stiff red clay plas- 
ter packed and polished by numerous moccasined feet. In the center was a 
sunken fireplace and, at equal distances from this, post holes which marked 
the former positions of the principal roof supports. 

A most remarkable feature, and one never before observed in cere- 
monial houses of the southeastern Indians, is the encircling bench on which 
individual seats were modeled in clay and separated from one another by nar- 
row ridges. Opposite the entrance, which opened to the southeast, was observed 
the modeled head of a great bird, probably an eagle, raised somewhat to serve 
perhaps as a ceremonial platform. 

Near the present city of Murphy, North Carolina, a large mound was 
excavated which has been identified as marking the ancient town of Guasili, 
visited by Hernando De Soto in 1540. This site, at the junction of Peachtree 
Creek and the Hiwassee River, was described, at the time of De Soto's visit, 
as a town of 600 wooden houses, probably an exaggeration, and the capital of 
a province where the hungry explorers were given a hearty welcome and feasted 
upon dog meat. They caught and cooked some of the Indian dogs, to the amaze- 
ment of the natives who never ate these animals. The Indians at once rounded 
up 300 of the creatures and gave them to the white man to cook. 

One of De Soto's men wrote: "The lord who bore the name of the 
province left the capital half a league to meet the Spaniards, accompanied by 
500 of the principal persons of the country, very gayly dressed after their 
fashion. His lodge was upon a mound with a terrace round it, where six men 
could promenade abreast." This site or mound has been definitely located, 
by Dr. John R. Swanton from its peculiar geographical location and checks 
with the description given by the early Spanish chroniclers who accompanied 
De Soto on his long march, as that of Guasili. 

Within" the Shiloh National Military Park, near Pittsburg Landing, 
Tenessee, several mounds and the adjacent village sites were excavated. The 
village site deposits revealed numerous house structures, and large quantities 
of broken pottery vessels were found in the mounds associated with the burials. 

25 




The Great Northern Mound At 
Etowah, in northern Georgia. 
(380 x 330 feet at the "base and approximately 170 
feet square on top, varying "between 70 and 80 feet 

in height) 



This famous Civil War 
battle-ground will con- 
tribute largely to the 
reconstruction of the 
prehistoric Indians 
who used this "beauti- 
ful site, located on 
the "bank of the Tenes- 
see River, long "before 
white man inhabited 
the region. 

The forego- 
ing descriptions brief- 
ly summarize recent ar- 
chaeological work in 
the mound area, prima- 
rily in the Southeast. 
Let us now consider 
some of the more wide- 
spread problems con- 
fronting archaeologists 
in the Mississippi Val- 
ley. 



Soon after the opening of the Ohio country the more observing pio- 
neers as early as 1786 described the extensive earthworks and mounds in south- 
ern Ohio. Among these early narrators can be included our illustrious Presi- 
dent Thomas Jefferson. For a hundred or more years the Indian mounds through- 
out the Mississippi Valley have tempted inquiring minds. In the early part 
of the 19th century fantastic theories were developed in an attempt to explain 
these unusual structures. When scientific investigations were begun the work- 
ers were confronted with the theories that these mounds were erected by a 
superior race; that they embodied the remains of the Lost Tribes of Israel or 
the mythical Atlanteans. Not until the end of the 19th century, when the Bur- 
eau of American Ethnology began its extensive survey of the entire mound area, 
were we able to definitely establish the builders of these mounds as ancestors 
of the historic Indian tribes . This was a very important step. It put an end 
to speculative exploration and was the real beginning of scientific examination,, 

Unquestionable evidence has been obtained through documentary sources 
as well as archaeological investigations that some of the mounds were actually 
built by the historic Shawnee and Cherokee. Siouxan tribes inhabiting the 
southern portion of Ohio just prior to the European settlements are credited 
with the building of some of the Ohio mounds. We are now in a position to say 
definitely that all of the prehistoric mounds and earthworks in the Mississippi 
Valley were constructed by ancestors of our American Indians. 

While the empires were rising and falling in Mexico and Central 
America, described in a previous paper, definite trade routes were probably 
being established leading from these high cultural centers into our present 



26 



Southwest and Mississippi Valley. Even though we cannot as yet prove a direct 
relationship between the prehistoric mound building cultures and the more ad- 
vanced cultures in the Valley of Mexico, Central America or Peruvian highlands, 
certain ideas and decorative motifs are closely paralleled. 

In the Lower Mississippi Valley artificial mounds were used as founda- 
tions for temple structures, while in the Upper Mississippi Valley they were 
used primarily for burial purposes. From all the evidence at hand at the pres- 
ent time and influenced to some extent by the actual periods of habitation ac- 
curately determined in the Southwest by the recent discovery of the tree ring 
chronology, we are led to believe that the entire mound building complex prob- 
ably does not antedate a period roughly about 500 A. D. It may well be that 
the building of mounds, both as temple foundations as well as burial structures, 
originated in Mexico and spread northward. 

Although the construction of temple mounds in Mexico differs, especial- 
ly in covering the outsides with large cut stones or rough stones covered with 
plaster, never practised in the Mississippi Valley, the actual use of artificial 
mounds for temple foundations may well have spread with the dissemination of 
maize or corn, which originated somewhere in the highlands of Mexico. 

When the early primitive hunters living in the Mississippi Valley 
came in contact with the more advanced and sedentary groups farther south, 
either by migration or through trade, they adopted and perfected maize and 
other indigenous plants to their own environment. At the same time the pro- 
cedure of building their temple structures on artificial knolls and burying 
their dead in these earth tumuli became a part of their social and religious 
practices. The more sedentary life which the cultivation of plants required 
and permitted made possible a more closely knit social organization which 
probably flowered rapidly and resulted in the building of such outstanding 
structures as Cahokia, in southern Illinois across the river from St. Louis, 
Missouri; Etowah in southern Georgia; Moundville in northern Alabama; and 
Kolomokee in southwestern Georgia. 

Archaeological techniques have been refined to such an extent with- 
in the past ten or fifteen years that we are now able to differentiate be- 
tween various prehistoric mound builders, both in time and culture. Unrelated 
cultures have been roughly outlined, similarities have become obvious. With- 
in the past five years a definite step forward has been made in the establish- 
ment of the fact that one of the outstanding cultures in the Upper Mississippi 
Valley, now known as the Hopewell culture, has been found to have existed as 
far south as central Louisiana. More than this, we have been able to deter- 
mine that this Hopewell phase in the South is the basic prehistoric culture. 

With this as a starting point, we are now gradually showing evolu- 
tion and migrations of this basic culture, which enables us to determine more 
accurately the prehistoric ancestors of some of our historic Indian tribes in 
the south. If the present impetus for determing these prehistoric relation- 
ships can be furthered, we are justified in believing that not many years 
will pass before a readable and more definite reconstructed prehistory can be 
written with regard to the Indians in the Mississippi Valley. 

27 



SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIANS 
By M. W. Stirling 
Chief, Bureau of American. Ethnology 

It is a strange fact that practically none of our grade or high 
schools and relatively few of our universities teach courses designed to give 
a true picture of the history and prehistory of the American Indian. In the 
case of the lower schools this is due in part to the fact that there are very 
few suitable text hooks availahle. Any high school graduate has a fair idea 
of the glory that was Greece or Rome, hut very few indeed have an accurate 
idea for example of the equally great cultural achievements of the Maya and 
the Incas, or of the advances in political organization made hy such tribes 
as the Iroquois. As a result of the general inability to obtain this informa- 
tion, many basic misconceptions concerning the Indian have gained a firm foot- 
ing in popular tradition and have been perpetuated in many cases by improper- 
ly informed writers. 

Because of the fact that the American aborigines did not develop a 
true system of writing, the task of reconstructing the past has of necessity 
been undertaken through the researches and excavations of the archaeologist. 
The quipu knot records of the ancient Peruvians, the recorded astronomical 
calculations of the Maya, and the realistic picture records of personal achieve- 
ments and calendar counts which were painted on skin by the Plains Indians and 
others give us some small information, but none of these can in any way be in- 
terpreted as historical accounts. 

In discussing these points it must be borne in mind that at the time 
of discovery, the New World was inhabited by hundreds of tribes with widely 
differing beliefs, modes of living and degrees of culture. In speaking of a 
people whose culture varied between that of the Maya on the one hand and the 
Seri for example on the other, it is obvious that no general statements can 
be made which will cover all cases. However, the effort has been made in this 
brief account to bring out such points as are most typical. 

The earliest of all the misconceptions about the Indians arose im- 
mediately upon the discovery of America, when Columbus thought he had reached 
the East Indies and therefore called the natives "Indians." 

Early in the 16th century, when America became definitely recognized 
as a separate continent, Europe began to speculate upon the probable origin 
of the natives. By this date Christianity had become firmly entrenched as the 
religion of Europe. In keeping with the religious spirit of the age, a solu- 
tion of the problem was first sought in Hebrew tradition. As a result there 
were soon circulated many publications purporting to demonstrate that the In- 
dians were descendants of the "Lost Tribes of Israel." As there are certain 
basic similarities in the customs of primitive peoples throughout the world, 

28 



it was an easy matter to demonstrate resemblances between the American In- 
dians and the early Hebrews. 

Speculation did not stop at this point, however. Energetic writers 
began to see resemblances between the pyramids and temples of Central America 
and Mexico and those of ancient Egypt or India. Others thought that they could 
see the hands of the Phoenicians or the Greeks in some of the customs of the 
Indians; in fact, most of the high civilizations of Europe, Asia and Africa 
were each supposed by some writer at some time to have been the point of origin 
of the Indian or of his civilization. Not content with having exhausted all 
of the known culture centers of antiquity, enterprising theorists had drawn 
upon mythical or assumed civilizations in order to furnish parents for our 
orphan natives . The myth of Atlantis and the theory of a lost continent in 
the Pacific have furnished colorful material for fanciful accounts of sup- 
posed ancient migrations. 

The story of tribes of "White Indians" is one of the most persistent 
of the legends connected with the alleged exotic origin of the Indians. As 
early as the 17th century Wefer noted the frequent existence of Albinos among 
the natives of Panama, and there have been frequently occurring notices of 
these people since that time. The supposed ancestors of these groups have 
been variously attributed to the Norsemen, the Irish and the Welsh. Needless 
to say, these stories are the result of colorful imaginations and the supposed 
evidences produced invariably collapse when investigated closely. 

In connection with popular ideas of this nature there might be men- 
tioned the widespread belief in the past or present existence of such abnor- 
malities as races of giants, pygmies or people with tails. The folk lore of 
the Indians often contains stories of giants and dwarfs to which credence has 
frequently been given by white hearers. In old burials unskilled observers 
have sometimes mistaken the skeletons of children for those of dwa.rfs. The 
fallacious idea of a race of dwarfs is most prevalent in the Pueblo region 
of the Southwest. This is due partially to the finding of the mummies of 
children, and partly to the frequent occurrence of miniature storage rooms 
with small doorways, these having been interpreted as the dwelling places of 
pygmies. 

Never a year passes without at least one newspaper report of the 
finding of the bones of an alleged giant. These finds when investigated in- 
variably turn out to be the bones of large mammals, fossil or otherwise, sup- 
posed by the discoverers to be human remains. In some instances actual human 
remains in a burial have become separated in such a manner as to give to the 
untrained observer the impression of abnormal stature. To untrained observers, 
human bones for some reason usually appear much larger than they expected. 

It might be said at this point without attempting to go into details 
that the studies of anthropologists have demonstrated that all of the American 
Indians are essentially of one generalized racial type, probably the basic 
type from which the mongoloid peoples of Asia have also sprung. 

29 



There are a number of "beliefs which have long held general credence 
concerning the existence of pre-Indian or non-Indian races in America. It 
was "believed for a long time that the mound "builders of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valleys and the cliff dwellers of the southwestern United States were 
not only racially distinct from the historic Indians, "but possessed a civili- 
zation superior to them. 

These beliefs have persisted in spite of the fact that it is now 
well known that many of the mounds were erected during historic times, and 
their functions described by early travelers. Many of the mounds when ex- 
cavated contain numerous articles of European manufacture. The skeletons 
and artifacts found in the pre-Columbian mounds show that their builders were 
Indians with a culture differing in no material degree from their proto-his- 
toric descendants. 

The pueblo dwellings erected on the cliffs in the arid Southwest 
were in no way distinct from other pueblo dwellings. Pueblos were built on 
the cliffs at a time the inhabitants were in fear of attack from invading 
enemies. The cliff dwellings were inhabited simultaneously with many other 
southwestern villages throughout virtually the entire period of occupancy of 
this region. We now know from the growth of tree rings in wooden beams found 
in the structures the exact years in which they were erected. Most of the 
principal cliff dwellings were erected in the 13th and 14th centuries. 

Probably no misunderstanding brought about as much ill feeling and 
bloodshed between the Indians and whites as the difference in concept con- 
cerning the ownership of land. The land within the tribal boundaries typical- 
ly belonged to the tribe as such. Neither the individual nor the family pos- 
sessed vested rights in land although each family might appropriate for pur- 
poses of cultivation as much as they required of any unoccupied land within 
the tribal boundaries. 

It was therefore impossible for any chief, family or any section 
of a tribe legally to sell or give away any part of the tribal holdings. 
Naturally any documents or purchases of this nature had no meaning to the 
early Indians. The first settlers seemed never to have learned this fact. 
Regardless of any negotiations carried on by individuals, the Indians of 
course considered themselves ousted when the whites took possession of their 
lands. 

The religious beliefs and philosophies of the Indian have been but 
little understood by the layman. Descriptions by Europeans were almost in- 
variably made in the familiar terminology of the Christian religion and in- 
terpretations were strongly influenced by the particular religious training 
of the European observer. Attempts to explain Indian religion by any sort 
of comparison with the so-called monotheistic religions of the Old World are 
bound to fail. 

Such familiar terms as "Great Spirit" and "Happy Hunting Grounds" 
were coined by Europeans in attempting to explain Christian concepts to the 



30 



Indian. The conception of a ruling all powerful deity is a political analogy 
applied to supernatural powers which could be conceived only "by a people aware 
of permanent centralized power, such as existed typically only in the Old World. 
Such groups as the Incas and the Natchez looked upon an individual theocratic 
head as the human representative of the sun and his authority was of a religi- 
ous rather than of a political nature. 

Generally far removed from any such centralization of religious ideas 
was the Indian belief in a multitude of spirits whose abode was to be found 
in nature and in both animate and inanimate objects. His rituals and offerings 
were given with the idea of propitiating these spirits. Behind all this was 
the somewhat mystic conception of an impersonal supernatural force which per- 
meates all nature and animates all phenomena which control the destiny of man; 
the Iroquois describe this by the term Orenda, the Algonquian, Manito and the 
Shoshonean, Pokunt. 

The Indian in no way mixed his ethics with his religion. Moral prin- 
ciples of good or evil were not a characteristic of his deities, as his reli- 
gion was a practical one. Consequently ideas of reward or punishment after 
death or any such spirit abodes as a happy hunting ground or an Indian hell 
were equally foreign to his conceptions until the idea became implanted in 
some instances by missionaries. Dreams or artificially induced visions, where- 
in he frequently saw and spoke with individuals known to be dead was ample 
proof to the Indian of the existence of a soul and an after life. Offerings 
placed with the dead. were a manifestation of this belief. The souls of the 
dead, however, were typically feared and usually magical measures were under- 
taken to prevent their return. 

There is a widely prevalent belief among many whites that there is 
a single general Indian language and that it is a primitive sort of speech, 
inadequate to express ideas fully, and which, to be understood, must be helped 
out by gestures. As a matter of fact the diversity and complexity of Indian 
languages is amazing. With no written literature to stabilize them, languages 
differentiate with great rapidity. There are among the tribes north of Mexico 
approximately fifty totally unrelated linguistic stocks. and well over 600 di- 
alects which are unintelligible one to another. Contrary to the prevalent 
notion, the vocabularies are rich and their grammatical structure intricate 
and systematic. Without exception these languages are capable of accurately 
expressing the most abstract ideas. 

One of the greatest of absurdities was the application of terms of 
royalty to the Indians by Europeans. It is perhaps natural that the first 
explorers, accustomed to Eur opearis' 1 ideas of regal descent and individual po- 
litical power, should apply such terms as "king" and "queen" and "princess" to 
members of the simply organized democratic village tribes of America. The idea 
of a legal executive head (entirely foreign to the Indians) was fostered by 
the colonists because of the aid it gave in the transaction of business, par- 
ticularly in regard to sale of land, which as has been already indicated, could 
not be done by tribal dealings. 



31 



The idea of inherited rank was for the most part foreign to the na- 
tive concept. Even the so-called chief among many tribes was recognized as 
leader only "because of his personal exploits or a generally recognized ability. 
Such a leader had no actual authority, his role "being purely advisory. 

In some tribes, such as the Iroquois, and some pueblo tribes, cer- 
tain chieftaincies were always selected from a particular clan. While there 
were hereditary chieftaincies among various other groups, as a matter of prac- 
tice such offices were usually elective. It is possible that the political 
system of the Iroquois influenced the democratic style of government of the 
United States. Probably the only example in North America of a power anal- 
ogous to that of a despot was to be found among the Natchez and neighboring 
tribes of the lower Mississippi. Even in this instance submission to the 
will of the chief was probably for the most part voluntary and based on reli- 
gion. 

Ideas of caste were as a rule lacking entirely. On the northwest 
coast of America something like a caste distinction arose based on property 
holdings and among the Natchez a caste system developed, based on heredity. 
The idea of individual wealth is not at all characteristic of the Indian. 

It is very generally believed that there are many "lost arts" in 
connection with Indian civilizations. Among these might be listed the belief 
that Indian doctors had knowledge of certain specific medicines, usually of 
a vegetable nature, that were particularly potent, and that the "secret" of 
these is now only in the possession of an occasional old person or has been 
entirely lost. This idea received a great deal of stimulation during the 
halcyon days of patent medicine, when Indian remedies were much in vogue. 

As a matter of fact the Indian believed most sickness to be caused 
by the activity of evil spirits which could be removed only by sorcery. There- 
fore the priest was the physician and treatment consisted in frightening or 
luring away these spirits. In many tribes there was a crude knowledge of the 
therapeutic use of certain plants, but even in these instances their applica- 
tion was deeply rooted in magic. The sweathouse which operated somewhat on 
the principle of a turkish bath was in general use among the Indians, but its 
use could scarcely be termed a curative measure. 

It has come to be very generally believed that the Indians had a 
method of tempering copper. None of the American Indians knew how to reduce 
ores. In North America, native copper was treated as a malleable stone and 
no process of tempering other than by hammering was ever employed. In Middle 
America and Peru a few copper alloys are found, some of which constitute true 
bronze. Whether these alloys were natural or whether tin was intentionally 
added to native copper is not certainly known. 

Another series of mistaken beliefs exists in connection with the 
native art of flaking stone. By many it is thought this is now a lost art, 
and that when the art was in use, great patience was required to complete an 
arrowhead or flint knife. 



32 



The actual method employed was a pressure process by means of which 
chips are successively removed by means of a hone or wooden awl shaped tool. 
Any Boy Scout should he able to complete a perfectly formed arrowhead of flint 
or obsidian in ten or fifteen minutes. It is quite impossible to shape stone 
by heating it and dropping cold water on it, despite the wide prevalence of 
this theory. 

It is likewise thought by many that the Indians had knowledge of 
complex mechanical principles and devices which were used in erecting some of 
the large mounds or in moving the large stones such as are found in some of 
the Middle American and Peruvian ruins. As a matter of fact the only force 
employed in this work was man power, and the only mechanical aids, the prob- 
able use of log rollers and attached lines to which the man power could be 
applied. 

The above misconceptions relate for the most part to attributes mis- 
takenly credited to the Indian which were in advance of his real knowledge or 
abilities. This list could be almost indefinitely extended, and it could be 
paralleled by another list in which the actual facts show the Indian to be 
far in advance of the popular conceptions. 

The Indian was much behind his European successors in such matters 
as the control of natural forces and principles, although his observation 
and knowledge of the organic life of his environment was surprisingly full and 
accurate. Virtually every Indian was a born zoologist and botanist and keen 
observer of nature. The depth and beauty of his philosophy and religion has 
been but little understood by the white man. As an artist, poet, orator and 
dramatist, he has never been exceeded. 

It is unfortunate that a general knowledge of these facts comes at 
a time when in most regions of North America the Indian himself has almost 
forgotten the old customs and the old beliefs. It is a curious fact that the 
generations to come ^vill have a clearer perspective and understanding of the 
aboriginal Indian than did most of his white contemporaries. 



4 s 4* 4* 4* 



33 



RESTORATION OP AN ANCIENT PUEBLO - KINISHBA 
An I.E.C.W. Project On The White Mountain Apache Indian Reservation 

By Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor 

(With acknowledgement to Dr. Byron Cummings, 

University of Arizona, Department of Archaeology) 



Pour miles west of old Fort Apache is 
the village of Kinishba. Now this Kinishba is 
not a village in the ordinary sense, because no 
one has lived there for hundreds of years. But 
its identity is clearly marked and its progress 
toward restoration is a moving drama of inter- 
est. Its stories are being told in the historic 
records left by a vanished people who, during 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries lived and 
moved and had their being at this important 
trading center. When this Pueblo was at the 
height of its development there were about 700 
rooms in the two sections. Whether they were 
all used at one time is not certain, but a con- 
servative estimate would indicate that not few- 
er than a thousand people had their homes in 
this village. 



Who Lived At Kinishba ? 

They were a peaceful people , indus- 
trious and home-loving. Their dry farms in the 
surrounding valley produced corn, beans and 
squash and this food supply was augmented with 
deer, antelope, wild turkey and the wild fruits 
and berries which were hunted in the adjoining 
mountains. Their clothing was spun and woven 
from wild cotton and fibres of the yucca, or fashioned from the skins of the 
animals which they used for food. Outstanding among their many accomplish- 
ments was the art of pottery. Bowls were fashioned in different sizes, shapes 
and colors. Red- bowls decorated with designs in black were probably most fre- 
quently used, but they also made white pottery which was decorated in black. 
Three-color ware was perhaps their triumph in pottery, in which they combined 
red, black and white in a variety of ways. They made ollas or storage jars 
of a rich red, large cooking pots of dark red or grey. The beauty of the de- 
signs they painted on the pieces, the quality of the paste used and the fir- 
ing all indicate their superiority as workmen and artists. 




Dean Byron Cummings 



34 



Kinishba pueblo was a sandstone and clay structure, the large rocks 
being set in regular courses and then chinked in with smaller rocks and mud. 
It is built on two sides of a large arroyo, and in one section alone there 
were fully 150 ground floor rooms "built around two rectangular natios measur- 
ing approximately 50 by 60 feet. While these people were skillful builders, 
it is interesting to note that they did not understand how to break joints in 
masonry work, but piled the large stones in direct vertical layers. 

Restoration Be gun By University of Arizona 

How has all this information been obtained? Well, a part of it, 
(and according to Dr. Byron Cummings of the University of Arizona, a most im- 
portant part) has come about as a direct result of E.C.W. activity on the 
Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Each summer the University of Arizona ar- 
chaeological department conducts a school on the site of this ancient ruin. 
As a requirement of their course, the students have been doing work on res- 
toration and conservation of the pueblo and its interesting contents. This 
"location" school has made possible an opportunity for professional instruc- 
tion of very great value, available to the Apaches on terms which they could 
not have duplicated at all, if they ha,d sought it through regular educational 
channels. Faculty, students and laboratory have come together and set up a 
University archaeological department right in their own back yard. 



Aoache E.C.W . Crew Joins In 

The Apaches had never understood these 
ruins; have never known much about them. As a 
result, valuable archaeological materials were 
being lost or destroyed, and these libraries of 
ancient culture were being dissipated, largely 
because the people did not know or appreciate 
their value. 

It was this educational opportunity 
which largely prompted the desire to set up an 
I.E.C.W. project at Kinishba. Here is an area. 
of which the maximum utilization will eventually 
be its conservation as a. public monument. It 
has already been visited by hundreds of neople 
who have learned and have been inspired, as they 
have viewed the historic panorama that is being 
unveiled. 

Twenty-one enrollees and one skilled 
workman make up the Aoache crew which has been 
specially selected for this assignment. The 
objective has been two-fold; one to get the 




Portion of Ancient Wall 



35 



... <jm$l 




Portion of Kinishba Pueblo, Being Restored 



work accomplished, the 
other to provide by this 
contact an appreciation 
of the worth of archaeo- 
logical findings and the 
value of preserving such 
materials when they are 
discovered. 



Ruin 8 Rich In "Finds" 



Both objectives 
are being effectively 
reached. The Indian young 
men are fascinated with 
the work. Each new dis- 
covery has found them as much interested as the University students. During 
this season just closed, 30 rooms have been excavated, the whole east wall 
of the pueblo uncovered and 40 rooms have been restored. These excavations 
have yielded a rich suoply of matter - pottery, shells, bones, fabrics. 

One interesting find was a string of tiny black and red stone beads. 
There were more than 3,300 of them, and they measured nine feet in length. 
They were strung in a regular pattern, red and black alternating, with the 
beads graduated as to size. Interspersed were tiny shell beads, and in the 
center was a small turquoise pendant. 

Among other finds this summer was a necklace of wampum and olavilla 
shells and another of spiral sea shells. Another ornament discovered was a 
small eagle, carved from stone. But the discoveries which have yielded fun- 
damental facts are the human and animal bones, pottery containing seeds and 
food supplies, fabrics, and the remaining parts of the pueblo structure it- 
self, preserved intact for centuries under the pile of debris and earth which 
covers it. Already a change of attitude is filtering through the Apache com- 
munities, and the ruins, of which there are several others on the reservation, 
are being more intelligently regarded. 



Restoration Follows Long-Range Plan 

Dr. Cummings plans that the restoration shall be left in three 
stages. The west side of the arroyo is to remain in much the same condition 
as the whole ruin appeared when first discovered. It then was only a large 
mound from which one could pick up pieces of broken pottery, sherds of vari- 
ously colored shattered cooking pots, ollas and bowls - the non-perishable 
artifacts which once served as the life tools of an ancient culture. 

On the east bank of the arroyo the plan is to restore the south 
half of the pueblo as nearly as possible to its original state. The north 



36 



section, which is now being uncovered, will be left in its excavated state, 
so that visitors may see three stages of archaeological study. 

Project 1016-2, as it is officially recorded in the Fort Apache 
E.C.W. program, has gone forward under unusual supervision. It is interest- 
ing to pick up a copy of Form 8, the "Weekly Progress Reoort" and note that 
it is signed toy Byron Cummings as "acting foreman", and contains such state- 
ments under title, "(N) Narrative Report" as follows: 

"Began restoration of five rooms and excavation of two rooms dur- 
ing the week. Finished the restoration of one room, except for the roof." 

Indians Are Leaders 

The E.C.W. enrollee group works always under direct supervision of 
an Indian leader. Ira Declay and David Kane have shared this responsibility 
at different times. These Apache youngsters are toecoming archaeologists in 
their own right and can tell you pretty much the story of the ruin as it has 
been revealed thus far. 



Dr. Cummings is highly pleased with his Indian crew, and while 
there are smiles at his assignment as "Foreman", he takes his E.C.W. resuon- 
sitoility mighty seriously. He says that under the present arrangement they 
have toeen atole to accomplish as much work in one season as they were able to 
do previously in four years. 



Students And Indians Join 
In Recreation 

The University 
students have made pleas- 
ant contacts with the A- 
paches. This summer they 
joined with the Apaches 
in the Fourth of July cel- 
etoration at Whiteriver and 
gave freely of their tal- 
ent in the program of en- 
tertainment. Taken all in 
all, the Kinishtoa project 
is important in many ways, 

and is leading to a clearer understanding, not only of the culture of an an- 
cient and vanished race, tout also of life as it is. 




Wm 






Restored Rooms at Southwest Corner 



37 



TONAWANDA INDIANS OF NEW YORK GET COMMUNITY CENTER 




The Dedication Ceremony 



Ground was "broken 
at 2:00 p. m. on November 16 
by Tonawanda Indians , by Mrs . 
Franklin Doctor and "by Mrs. 
Hanover Spring, for the Com- 
munity and Comic il House to 
be built for the Indians of 
the Tonawanda Reservation in 
New York. The building, which 
is to be an educational and 
health center is the first of 
its kind provided for a New 
York State reservation. It 
was erected by the Federal 
Government at a cost of ap- 
proximately $35,000. In it, 
there will be an auditorium, 
gymnasium, meeting room for 
the chief's council, health 



clinic 
music 
Crafts 
ences. 



showers, recreation room, library, club rooms, museum, study and 
room for Seneca group singing. The studio will house the Arts and 
Project under the supervision of the Rochester Museum of Arts arid Sci- 



Mrs. Walter Henricks of Penn Yan was the moving individual force 
behind this successful undertaking. It was also through her untiring efforts 
that favorable action was taken by the New York State legislature in passing 
the maintenance appropriation bill which allows $3,000 annually for the sup- 
port of the building. The entire project will be under the jurisdiction of 
the state department of social welfare, with provision made for a resident 
director, assistant director and janitor. 

In accordance with the Federal Government Indian treaties, the In- 
dians purchased public land on which the community house is being erected and 
then leased it to the state for ninety-nine years. 

The lines of the cypress log building follow the pattern of the 
Iroquois Long House enclosed by a log fence simulating the old Indian stock- 
ade. The interior of the building will be adorned with Indian murals, carv- 
ings, water colors, etchings, oils, ceremonial masks and other examples of 
Indian art. Federal Arts under Mrs. Audrey McMahon plans a huge curtain for 
the stage which will depict Indian history and to be done by a Tonawanda In- 
dian artist. Under this same project group, it is hoped, the planting of the 
grounds will be carried out. 



38 



REVOLVING- CREDIT FUND OPERATIONS 
By H. M. Critchf ield, Supervisor of Credit 

The Indian credit system authorized "by the Indian Reorganization Act 
is now beginning to function. Up to December 1 a total of nineteen tribes had 
ratified charters and of these, eleven tribes had submitted applications total- 
ing $670,000. Those requesting loans were: 

Flathead Santee 

Mescalero Blackfeet 
Lower Brule Rocky Boy's 
Ponca Tulalip 

Winnebago Muckleshoot 
Grande Ronde 

Of the remaining eight tribes now eligible to make applications, two 
tribes, Swinomish and Western Shoshone, have indicated that they do not intend 
to submit applications at present. Applications for the following six tribes 
are now in process of preparation: 

Omaha Red Cliff 

Flandreau Pyramid Lake 
Tongue River Fort McDermitt 

The credit system is following closely upon completion of the organi- 
zation work. 

In all cases economic development programs have accompanied the appli- 
cations showing plans for economic improvement, how credit will be used to as- 
sist in such improvement, and how the credit activities will be conducted. Ap- 
plications received from the chartered corporations to date indicate that the 
tribes realize the advantages to be gained through sound credit operation and 
their responsibility in connection with this development. The corporation of- 
ficers seem to realize that the goal of economic security cannot be reached 
over night and that they must build soundly, with 'credit as the motive power. 
The plans provide mainly for the development of the live stock and farming 
industries. 

The use of funds for productive purpose is being stressed. The need 
for housing and other permanent improvement is great, but the tribal officials 
seem to feel that if the production side can be set into motion more efficient- 
ly, that eventually improvement may be expected along other lines, and that 
unless funds are invested in productive enterprises the "revolving" feature 
will be defeated, which must not be allowed to happen. 



39 



The requests for assistance which the credit agents are receiving 
from organized trices show definite thinking along sound credit lines. Re- 
ports indicate a marked interest in the cooperative movement, and a desire to 
proceed on a sound basis, starting conservatively and increasing the size of 
their enterprises as they gain experience. Development of tribal enterprises 
is also receiving careful consideration. 

A business-like credit system is a new thing in the Indian Service 
and one of the most encouraging signs is the realization by the corporation 
officers that they must proceed cautiously until they have acquired more ex- 
perience along credit lines. They seem to fully recognize that the revolving 
fund presents opportunities to them which have heretofore been lacking, and 
intend to do their utmost to help it succeed. The opportunity is there - it 
is up to them to make the most of it. The Credit Section stands ready to as- 
sist them in any way possible. In all instances the tribes are requiring de- 
finite plans from their borrowers to show exactly how the funds are to be used, 
and are proceeding carefully in all their operations. Two things which they 
are emphasizing most are: First, loans for productive purposes. Second, 
loans must be repaid and the borrowers' plans must show how repayments can be 
made. 



BRIDGE BUILDING ON TEE CHEYENNE RIVER RESERVATION IN SOUTH DAKOTA 
By John J. Durkin, Junior Road Engineer 




Moreau River Bridge 
Cheyenne River Reservation, South Dakota 



Several bridges 
were included in the road 
program on the Cheyenne 
River Reservation. The 
largest of these is the 
Moreau River Bridge, east 
of Promise, South Dakota. 
This is a 170-foot bridge 
made up of a 90-foot main 
span end two 40-foot side 
spans. The concrete a- 
butments and piers are 
supported on niles. The 
roadway is 18 feet wide 
and 27-| feet above low 
water. 



Lack of machinery taxed the ingenuity of the Indian bridge crew, 
but they overcame all difficulties. The crew did spend several anxious min- 
utes when a cable holding one of the 90-foot girders snapped under the nine- 
ton load. 



40 



ROCK ASPHALT AT UINTAH AND OURAY IN UTAH 
By E. Morgan Pryse, Director of Highways 

Valuable rock asphalt, suitable for paving purposes, has been dis- 
covered on the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in Utah. Perhaps it would be 
better to say, rediscovered, since the Army people used this native asphalt 
many years ago to pave the streets and roads around old Fort Duchesne. Pre- 
liminary investigations indicate that this asphalt exists in great quantities. 
The beds near White Rocks are three hundred feet in width; at least that in 
height, and outcroppings indicate that they probably extend thirty miles un- 
der the Uintah range of mountains at a general elevation of some two thousand 
feet above sea level. Streets paved in Salt Lake City and Vernal with this 
asphalt as long as seventeen years ago show little difference in condition 
from streets paved with it during the past year. Tests made by the Utah High- 
way Commission indicate that this rock asphalt will withstand a pressure of 
three hundred pounds per square inch, or approximately three times the pressure 
of oil roads. Sections of Highway No. 40, which crosses the Uintah and Ouray 
Reservation, is being paved with this native material. 

The state is processing this asphalt by merely grinding it up so 
that the material will pass through a one-quarter inch screen. This is done 
in order to insure an even spread of the material to a thickness of one and 
one-half inches on the road. When rolled and completed, the paving is one 
and one-quarter inches in thickness. The state is using approximately seven 
hundred tons of the rock asphalt to the mile. The asphalt in its native form 
runs as high a.s twenty-two per cent to crude oil and asphaltum. To secure 
about eleven per cent moisture the low grade asphalt is mixed with the high 
grade when running it through the crusher and grinders. 

A further study will be made to determine the feasibility of mining 
and shipping this asphalt to other reservations for paving streets around the 
agencies, hospitals and the more important roads. Aside from a crusher, most 
of the equipment required in mining and processing is already on hand at Uintah 
and Ouray. 

Asphalt may be described as a semi-solid, sticky residue formed by 
the partial evaporation or distillation of certain petroleuns. This is as 
true of native asphalts as those obtained by refining petroleums. Only the 
native asphalts were known to the ancients, but late in the nineteenth century 
it was found that asphalt was a constituent of certain petroleums and could 
be recovered from them by distilling off the volatile oils which held it in 
solution. About eighty per cent of the world's asphalt is produced from pe- 
troleum refineries. Sandstone and limestone, commonly known as rock asphalt, 
is found in various parts of the world; in the United States it is found in 
Texas, Oklahoma., Alabama, Kentucky and Utah. The largest and best known de- 
posits of relatively nure asphalt occur as an asphalt or pitch lake on the 

41 



Island of Trinidad, British West Indies. An especially pure asphalt of very 
brittle material known as gilsonite, i s a lso found on the Uintah & Ouray 
Reservation and in Colorado. 

Practically all native asphalt is too hard for direct use and must 
be heated until water, gas and other volatile materials are driven off and 
then fluxed or softened to the desired constituency by mixing with the proper 
amount of residual petroleum. On the other hand, asphalt recovered by distil- 
lation does not require f luxation as the process is stopped when the produc- 
tion reaches the desired constituency. 



EXTENSION OF TRUST PERIOD ON INDIAN LANDS 



By Executive order of September 30, 1936, the period of trust ap- 
plying to any Indian lands, whether of a tribal or individual status, upon 
which the trust period was due to expire December 31, 1936, or at any time 
during the calendar year 1937, was extended for a further period of 25 years. 
This order applies to lands on at least 18 different reservations. The 25- 
year period of extension, instead of the 10-year extension that has been 
granted annually for some time, is in line with the desires of the Indians 
and the policy of the present administration to hold Indian trust lands under 
trust. 

There are approximately 120 Indian reservations throughout the 
United Sta.tes upon which allotments of land have been made. Many of the al- 
lotments are covered by patents which provided that the lands belonging to the 
Indians should be retained under trust for a period of twenty-five years, 
subject to extension at the discretion of the President. Some reservations 
contain thousands of allottees whose individual trust holdings, in some cases, 
embrace as much as one thousand acres. 

Extension of the trust periods began about 1909 and such extensions 
have been for from one to twenty-five years. It was formerly the practice to 
obtain separate extension orders for each reservation when the trust period 
was about to terminate but in recent years blanket extension orders similar 
to the recent one have been made. 

Some of the lands affected by the President's recent order are those 
belonging to the Eastern Shawnees, Absentee Shawnees, Citizen Pottawatomies, 
Ottawas, Senecas, ^fyandottes, Cheyenne and Arapahoes, Oklahoma; some of the 
Mission Indians of California; those of the Colville Reservation, Washington, 
and Indian lands of Fort Lapwai, Idaho. 



42 



GREAT LAEES AGENCY FISH HATCHERY RAISES HOPES FOR BETTER LIVING 
By Ben C. Gauthier - I.E.C.W. Project Manager 



One hundred and twenty lakes lie within the boundaries of the Lac 
Du Flambeau Reservation. Included is the Flambeau chain of nine lakes con- 
nected by thoroughfares which are navigable for small boats. The Big Bear 
River, also known as the Flambeau, has its source from this chain of lakes 
and winds its way in a westerly direction across the reservation. 

In the past sporting magazines frequently contained articles de- 
scribing the reservation, the Indians and the excellent bass, pike and musk- 
alonge fishing. Without a doubt the part of the Bear River known as "Lazy 
Bend" on the Lac Du Flambeau Reservation, has had some of the best "muskie" 
fishing in the country. 

At one time the Indian agency maintained and operated a pike hatch- 
ery which was highly successful, hatching fifteen million pike fry each sea- 
son. Since the hatchery has not operated for some time the lakes have been 
gradually depleted of their abundant supply of fish and are sadly in need of 
restocking. 

Now a new hatchery is being built. It will be capable of producing 
annually fifty million pike fry and approximately two million muskalonge fry. 
These fry will be placed in the waters of the Lac Du Flambeau, Lac Courte 
Oreilles and the Bad River Reservations. 

With the passing of the lumbering era, which provided employment 
for most of the inhabitants of this region, it is evident that the major 
source of employment during the summer months must continue to come from 
vacationists' needs. Restocking our lakes from the fish hatchery now under 
construction will attract more tourists. These sportsmen need Indian- guides. 
Also, more vacationists will mean a larger sale of Indian handicrafts. 

No wonder that this project is being received with enthusiasm by 
all residents on these reservations. 



^ 



43 




Crowheart Butte on Big Wind River 
Shoshone Reservation, Wyoming 






"Coza Nakota" 



44 



AN HISTORIC LANDMARK AT SHOSHONE 

At the top of the opposite page is a picture of Crowheart Butte. 
In March, 1866, a tattle was fought in this vicinity "between Shoshone and 
Bannock Indians on one side and Arapahoes, G-ros Ventres and Cheyennes on the 
other. The name was given to this butte by the whites, under a misconception 
that it was in this battle that "Washakie", Chief of the Shoshones displayed 
the heart of a Crow Indian chief, whom he had killed, on the point of his 
lance at a war dance after the tattle. 

It was at a fight near the Kinnear crossing of Big Wind River that 
the episode alluded to occurred, forty miles away. The Shoshones call this 
"butte "Bad Medicine Butte" from the following occurrence: 

A Shoshone warrior ascended this "butte at sunrise one morning to 
scan the country for Arapahoes, who were said to "be looking for a fight with 
the Shoshones. Not having returned "by sundown, his friends became alarmed 
and started a search for him. He was found dead on the top of the butte ly- 
ing with his head on his arms, without a wound, evidently a victim of light- 
ning or heart disease. Hence the name "Bad Medicine" or "Bad Luck" butte. 

No full-blood Shoshone will ascend this butte for any consideration. 

****** 

On the left is a picture of Coza Nakota, said to be the only sur- 
viving eye-witness of the bloody Crowheart Butte fight. She was shot through 
the hip and consequently has remained a lifetime cripple. She states that 
she was thrown from her horse during the fight and witnessed the death and 
wounding of many of her tribesmen. It was from this old woman that the true 
history of the fight was obtained. 

45 



ADVICE TO AN IROQUOIS LAWMAKER 



There is much in the Constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy 
(known to "be in force in 1570 and believed by some students to have been 
adopted many years earlier), that we prize today in the Constitution of the 
United States. In this constitution were embodied the principles of initi- 
ative, referendum, recall, and the ideal of a constitutional federal democ- 
racy in which all men of good will and honor - and women as well - might 
participate. 

Below is a passage(l) from that constitution, as it has been 
"talked into" wampum and handed down from generation to generation. The 
nobly-phrased translation is that of A. C. Parker, Director of the Rochester 
Museum of Arts and Sciences, and himself a member of the Seneca Tribe 

It is the exhortation to an Iroquois lawmaker on taking his place 
at the Council Fire, to enable him to fulfill his pledge to "... live ac- 
cording to the constitution of the Great Peace and exercise justice in all 
affairs." It is advice by which any lawmaker among any people and in any 
age might well be guided. 

"... You shall now become a mentor of the people of the Five Na- 
tions. The thickness of your skin shall be seven spans - which is to say 
that you shall be proof against anger, offensive actions and criticism. Your 
heart shall be filled with peace and good will and your mind filled with a 
yearning for the welfare of the people of the Confederacy. With endless 
patience you shall carry out your duty and your firmness shall be tempered 
with tenderness for your people. Neither anger nor fury shall find lodge- 
ment in your mind and all your words and actions shall be marked with calm 
deliberation. In all of your deliberations in the Confederate Council, in 
your efforts at law making, in all your official acts, self-interest shall 
be cast into oblivion. Cast not over your shoulder behind you the warnings 
of the nephews and nieces should they chide you for any error or wrong you 
may do, but return to the way of the Great Law which is -just and right. Look 
and listen for the welfare of the whole people and have always in view not 
only the present but also the coming generation's, even those whose faces are 
yet beneath the surface of the ground - the unborn of the future Nation." 

(1) A. C. Parker: "Constitution of the Five Nations" (1916); Sec. 28. 



46 



THREE INDIAN CHRISTMASES 

Th e Christmas Season At Turtle Mountain in North Dakota 

The old French and Indian spirit of Christmas begins at Christmas 
Eve with midnight mass. After the services are over we all begin to greet 
our friends. Then we hurry to get home to the little ones and do our part 
with Santa Clause. 

We are awakened in the morning very early, by the sounds of little 
bugles, trumpets, drums and all sorts of merrymaking toys. The little chil- 
dren with their mouths filled with candy and laughter make us all happy and 
we wish all the world a Merry Christmas. 

Our custom is for the older people to remain at home to await the 
visits of their children. The parents of the wife are visited first. On ar- 
riving at the home of her parents early New Year's morning, the woman kneels 
in front of her father who gives her absolution and a blessing for the coming 
year. She then arises and he greets her, "A Happy New Year!", and kisses her. 
Greetings are then exchanged all around, wraps are taken off and all sit down 
at the table. Home-made drinks of some kind are usually served before eating. 
Sometimes old French songs are sung. 

The main dishes for this celebration are "bullettes", which are meat 
balls made of hamburger or other ground meat, onions, salt, pepper and flour 
mixed together and boiled. Then there is a special kind of cake or pudding 
called, "La Puchine", which is made of flour, raisins, brown sugar, nutmeg, 
cloves, soda and milk stirred together. This mixture is poured into a pre- 
pared linen bag, which is sewed up at the end, put into a kettle of boiling 
water and boiled for one and one-half hours. 

We choose a certain home in which to meet at night for a merry old- 
time dance. We have the old-time quadrilles, French four, double jig and all 
that goes with old times. By Joe Trothier and Pete Marcellais . From " Chippew a" 



Christmas At Isleta Pueblo In New Mexico 

The night before Christmas every Indian adobe house is beautifully 
decorated with lighted candles all around the roof of the house. 



47 



They start the ceremony with Indian dances at the old Mission church. 
This is followed by a midnight mass. The Indian dances start about nine 
o'clock. Two different clans of dancers, six pairs in each clan, take turns 
in performing. All through the four following days about the same kind of 
dances are held at the plaza, both morning and afternoon. 

The costume of the women is the regulation pueblo dress of bla.ck, 
fastened to the right shoulder. Each wears a scarf of bright-colored silk, 
tied about the neck. They wear many silver bracelets, necklaces and rings. 
Each wears white buckskin moccasins, with knee length, wrapped leggings. In 
both hands they carry eagle feathers. The men dancers are naked to the waist. 
Their bodies are streaked with fine wavy white lines and a white spot in cheek. 
Each man carries a gourd rattle in his right hand. He carries a highly deco- 
rated bow with many feathers. Below the knee are garters of sleigh bells. Moc- 
casins of dark red leather complete the men's costume. 

About ten men in a circle do the singing while a tom-tom keeps the 
dancers in perfect time. From the "Sandpainter" Albuquerque Boarding School . 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 



A Nava.jo Christmas 

The Navajo don't celebrate Christmas like the white people do. One 
or two days before Christmas they start going to where their children are at- 
tending school or to a trading post near where they live. They usually go on 
horseback, in wagons, trucks and automobiles. 

On Christmas Eve they go to the program. When the program is over 
they receive some presents just as we do at school; especially the ones that 
have small children and babies. The white people like to give little children 
and babies gifts. 

On Christma.s morning they go to church when the schoolchildren go. 
They all enjoy Christmas dinner together. Everybody has lots to eat. After 
dinner, if the weather isn't bad, they have foot races, horse races and other 
kinds of games. Sometimes they have a chicken pull, or a Ye"i-bi-chai dance, 
if they want to. 

The ones that live far away start going beck to their home after 
dinner or a little later. Some of them stay for the races and dances. They 
all go home with the gifts they received. By C. B. From Teouayo - Santa Fe 
School , New Mexico. 



FROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



A Good Word For I.E.C.W . From 
Great Lakes ( Wisconsin ) I have "been 
in this camp over twenty-one months 
and dare say it is the best place I 
have ever worked since I have been 
out for myself . 

I have learned how to do many 
different types of work since being 
enrollefl here, where I would not 
have learned if it had not been for 
the I.E.O.W. I hope this organiza- 
tion will continue to do its great 
work, as I know it will, in the fu- 
ture. 

We are now in the midst of tree 
planting and everyone seems to be 
breaking records in accomplishment 
in this district as far as tree 
planting is concerned. A.E. Rehberg . 

Various Reports From Osage ( Ok - 
lahoma ) We started to work on this 
pond, and have had fairly good luck 
as it was my first one. The only 
trouble we had was getting down to 
clay for the core. It began to look 
like all the clay had turned to rock 
but we finally got down to it so we 
are making good time now. Claire 
Bellieu , Assistant Leader . 

We have had fairly good luck on 
this project. We were rained out 
three days and had some trouble get- 
ting large rocks out of the core. A 
few cold days, but everyone seemed 
to enjoy it after such a hot summer. 
We will complete this project soon. 
Ben Burnett , Leader . 

The regular I.E.C.W. meeting 
was held at the Osage Agency with an 



attendance of about 100. Fred Ahrberg 
gave an interesting talk on duties of 
a Farm Agent and relation of I.E.C.W. 
to his work. James P. Lawyer gave a 
good talk on irrigation, and Acting 
Superintendent C. L. Ellis praised the 
boys on the quality of work so far 
completed by I.E.C.W. Dr. Wyrick 
gave a short talk on injuries and 
health. Following the meeting coffee 
and doughnuts were served. 

Basket ball practice has started 
with a turnout of 12 men and more will 
turn out for it as soon as first aid 
classes are completed. William F. 
Lobadie . 

Excavation of Drainage Canal At 
New York . Ideal working conditions 
enabled our crew to complete very good 
percentage this week. Many yards of 
dirt are now being moved away from 
the ditches and all the stone which 
was blasted out last winter is also 
being removed. 

The water from the recent heavy 
rains is well taken care of by the 
ditch. Some of the men have been 
working in water knee-deep. Joseph 
F. Tarbell . 

Snowstorm At Pierre School 
( South Dakota ) Our first storm of 
the season arrived and it made it 
necessary for us to start working on 
our check dam and get it in shape 
for spring floods due to heavy snows 
on the hills. 

We had a number of yards of dirt 
to put on the top and center of the 
fills so as to drive the water to 



49 



our spillway. We also had to "build 
a snowplow to "break the roads so 
as to travel to and from our differ- 
ent projects. It looks as though we 
are going to have one of the old- 
fashioned winters with lots of snow. 
We need the moisture. S. J. Wood . 

Fence Ren air At Colorado River 
( Arizona ) Started to work on the 
"Moon Mountain Pasture", repairing 
old fence and constructing new fence. 
This pasture will be used to hold 
cattle, that have been gathered in 
outlying districts. 

This week we repaired 950 rods 
of fence . Lute Wilson . 

Truck Trail Construction At 
Ya kima ( Washington ) There has been 
a considerable amount of work done 
this week. The grader crew has been 
smoothing the trail down and it is 
ready to be used from the Big Muddy 
on through to the bridge across the 
Klickatat River. The compressor 
crew is drilling and blasting on the 
west side of the Big Muddy. 

The caterpillar is pushing 
stumps out of the right-of-way near 
the boundary of the reservation and 
is having a tough time of it in 
places. Charles Hilbun. 

Various Projects Being Conducted 
At Winnebago ( Nebraska ) During the 
past week tree planting on Soil Con- 
servation dams has been completed at 
Winnebago. 

Repair work has progressed very 
rapidly on the Omaha Reservation, 
partially due to the excellent 
weather conditions and partly due to 
the keen interest shown by the men 
on this project. 



The work of clearing trees went 
along rapidly this week due to the 
fact that an old trail was followed 
which needed only the side slopes 
grubbed; the trail then followed a 
ridge the rest of the way which was 
sparsely timbered. The grading unit 
has caught up with the clearing and 
this project will be finished this 
week. Norman P. Lessor , Foreman . 

Post Cutting At Hopi ( Arizona ) 
A record cut of slightly over 1,200 
posts this week completes the post 
cutting program. Every effort was 
made to complete the cutting this 
week and get the posts stacked near 
some main road before snow flies. As 
the cutting was high on the mountain 
and in thick timber, a heavy snow 
would have closed this area to trucks. 
Rivalry was keen among the enrol lees 
swinging the axes, and a daily score 
board was kept showing the high man. 
Hostien G-onnie Be gay with a high score 
of 49 posts held the championship with- 
out question. The cutters far out- 
worked the teams so that it will be 
necessary for two teams to return and 
haul for three days next week. 

The fencing crew is still en- 
countering difficulties in the bad- 
lands of the Painted Desert, but are 
making good headway despite the rough 
going. Absence of roads and trails 
mpJce delivery of material hard. The 
"Cat" will be tied up for repairs and 
servicing until Wednesday of next week, 
when it will resume work with the drag 
and small grader on the main trails 
and then snake in some more posts. 
Ellsworth W. Nichols . 

Water Development At Fcrt Totten 
( North Dakota ) Eight wells have been 
bored and casing placed to date. One 
well was completed this week with the 



50 



boring machine . We had to go down 
77 feet through slate, stone, .gravel, 
before we struck water. One well 
was dug and casing placed during. the 
week. A second dug well was started 
this week and nearly completed. 
Four wells were repaired this week 

Two miles of grading and one 
fill have been completed to date. 
Brushing was completed and stones re- 
moved from roadbed, •£ mile ahead of 
grader. All surveying was completed. 
Frost and snow have not hindered us, 
but stone above and below surface has 
taken considerable time and man power. 
C. A. Hubel . 

Praises for I.E.C.W . From Navajo 
(New Mexico ) How nice it is for 
I.E.C.W. to build reservoirs for the 
Navajo and the springs so that horses, 
cattle and sheep can have plenty of 
water to drink. How nice it is for 
I.E.C.W. to fence the reservoir to 
protect it for many years, and the 
Navajo knows just where to go for 
their water, and we Navajo say thank 
you to I.E.C.W. Archie Atcitty . 

Well Digging At Standing Rock 
( North Dakota ) We finished Well No. 
5, cased it, and it is now ready for 
the pump. 

The crew moved to Well No. 2 to 
re-dig at lea.st 8 feet more in order 
to get good water. The work has been 
slowing up because of the cold days, 
but we are doing the best work we can. 
Edmund Many deeds , Assistant Leader . 

Various Projects At Eastern 
Cherokee ( North Carolina ) Work this 
week has been on the Washington Creek 
truck trail and the fire trails. 
Rain on Thursday prevented work in 
the field, so the time was spent in 



repair to tools and equipment at the 
garage. Jarre t Bly the . 

We started a new horse trail 
this week. Had a small crew working 
on some cribbing on Project 65. The 
trail builder is on the last part of 
the truck trail. There is a cliff 
of rock to go around which is very 
bad and will take a day to get around 
for the last stretch. Roy Bradley . 

Completion Of Project At Tulalip 
( Washington) This week has seen the 
completion of one of our major proj- 
ects at this jurisdiction and the be- 
ginning of another. 

The truck trail, the project just 
completed, has been under construction 
for about two years. 

The project on which work has 
just commenced is the Lumrai Dike proj- 
ect and is situated about 75 miles 
from headquarters. Theodore Lozeau . 

Sodding At Cheyenne and Ara.naho 
( Oklahoma ) Work on sodding was pushed 
all possible this week in order to get 
all the sod in that we could and have 
it growing and set good before the 
cold weather sets in. It looks as if 
winter will be in this part of the 
country pretty soon. The men worked 
good. Daji Black Horse . 

Work On Truck Trail At Couer d ' 
Alene ( Idaho ) The work on the truck 
trail was comple ted the middle of the 
week. That makes the trail so a per- 
son can travel on it during the win- 
ter, instead of it being cut up and 
full of ruts. We also started a horse 
trail on one of the reserves. This 
reserve needed a trail as it has no 
road. It will help the people in many 
ways . Austin Corbett . 



51 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




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